Tin Sulfide Nanoparticles as a p-Type Semiconductor Material: Synthesis and Characterization


  • Mohd Zubair Ansari
  • Raunak Sharma Physics Department, National Institute of Technology Srinagar, Hazratbal, Srinagar Kashmir (J&K)




energy gap, chemical bath deposition, absorbance, XRD


In this paper, the synthesis and characterization of tin sulfide as a p-type semiconductor material are reported. The low-cost, straightforward use of the transparent conductive tin sulfide technique of chemical bath deposition. The pH levels (7, 8, 9, and 10) were changed while maintaining a fixed bath temperature to create the tin sulfide nanoparticles. XRD, FTIR, and UV-visible were all used to look at the tin sulfide nanoparticles used in this study and learn about their structure and how they move light. Created via chemical bath deposition at various pH values to examine how pH affects the characteristics of the nanoparticles. Tin sulfide structural analysis and crystalline size are revealed by its X-ray diffraction pattern, and both are shown to be affected by changes in pH. Correspondingly, for pH 7, pH 8, pH 9, and pH 10. Tauc plot was used to determine the SnS nanoparticles' optical bandgap energies. From pH 7 to pH 10, it was noticed that the size of the SnS nanoparticle crystallite decreased. It was shown that the quantum confinement effect makes the band gap energy of SnS nanoparticles go up as the sizes of the crystallites get smaller. FTIR spectra confirm the dominating bond stretching of sulfur (S) and tin (Sn) atoms. The SnS nanoparticles generated with enhanced optical characteristics might be employed as an absorber layer in the development of SnS-based heterojunction solar cells, according to optical characterization, which demonstrates that the direct energy band gap (Eg), which is seen to rise with increasing pH values, is increasing with pH values.


Singh, J. P., and R. K. Bedi. "Electrical properties of flash-evaporated tin selenide films", Thin Solid Films 199.1 (1991): 9-12.

Koteeswara Reddy, N., M. Devika, and E. S. R. Gopal. "Review on tin (II) sulfide (SnS) material: synthesis, properties, and applications", Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences 40.6 (2015): 359-398.

Andrade-Arvizu, Jacob A., Maykel Courel-Piedrahita, and Osvaldo Vigil-Galán. "SnS-based thin film solar cells: perspectives over the last 25 years", Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 26 (2015): 4541-4556.

Guneri, E., et al. "Properties of p-type SnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition", Chalcogenide Lett 7.12 (2010): 685-694.

Hankare, P. P., et al. "Synthesis and characterization of tin sulphide thin films grown by chemical bath deposition technique", Journal of Alloys and Compounds 463.1-2 (2008): 581-584.

Jiang, Tong, and Geoffrey A. Ozin. "New directions in tin sulfide materials chemistry", Journal of materials chemistry 8.5 (1998): 1099-1108.

Gou, Xing-Long, Jun Chen, and Pan-Wen Shen. "Synthesis, characterization and application of SnSx (x= 1, 2) nanoparticles", Materials chemistry and physics 93.2-3 (2005): 557-566.

El-Nahass, M. M., et al. "Optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS thin films", Optical Materials 20.3 (2002): 159-170.

Ikuno, Takashi, et al. "SnS thin film solar cells with Zn1− xMgxO buffer layers", Applied Physics Letters, 102.19 (2013).

Tanuševski, A., and Dirk Poelman. "Optical and photoconductive properties of SnS thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation", Solar energy materials and solar cells 80.3 (2003): 297-303.

Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert, et al. "Enhancing the efficiency of SnS solar cells via band-offset engineering with a zinc oxysulfide buffer layer", Applied Physics Letters 102.5 (2013).

Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert, et al. "Overcoming efficiency limitations of SnS‐based solar cells", Advanced Energy Materials 4.15 (2014): 1400496.

Reddy, KT Ramakrishna, N. Koteswara Reddy, and R. W. Miles. "Photovoltaic properties of SnS based solar cells", Solar energy materials and solar cells 90.18-19 (2006): 3041-3046.

Ghosh, Biswajit, et al. "Fabrication of CdS/SnS heterostructured device using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction deposited SnS", Thin Solid Films 519.10 (2011): 3368-3372.

Mahdi, Mohamed S., et al. "Influence of pH value on structural, optical and photoresponse properties of SnS films grown via chemical bath deposition", Materials Letters 210 (2018): 279-282.

Iker, Chávez-Urbiola, Vorobiev Yuri, and Ramirez-Bon Rafael. "New principles in design and technology of multi-junction solar energy converters", International Journal of Materials, Mechanics and Manufacturing 4.1 (2016).

Higareda-Sánchez, A., et al. "Evaluation of pH and deposition mechanisms effect on tin sulfide thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition", Superlattices and Microstructures 151 (2021): 106831.

Ammar, Imen, et al. "Deposition of SnS thin films by chemical bath deposition method: Effect of surfactants", The European Physical Journal Plus 134 (2019): 1-8.

Ocampo-Ortega, Carlos, et al. "Chemical bath deposited orthorhombic SnS films for solar cell applications", Coatings 12.2 (2022): 283.

Marquez, I. G., et al. "Cubic, orthorhombic and amorphous SnS thin films on flexible plastic substrates by CBD", Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 32.12 (2021): 15898-15906.

Feng, Mingjie, et al. "Interfacial strain engineering in wide-bandgap GeS thin films for photovoltaics", Journal of the American Chemical Society 143.25 (2021): 9664-9671.

Khan, Nauman, et al. "Bath temperature role in tailoring the properties of chemically bath deposited tin sulfide films", Materials Today Communications 33 (2022): 104238.

Rodriguez-Guadarrama, L. A., et al. "Synthesis of π-SnS thin films through chemical bath deposition: Effects of pH, deposition time, and annealing temperature", Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 32 (2021): 7464-7480.

González-Flores, Victoria Elena, et al. "Thin film solar cells of chemically deposited SnS of cubic and orthorhombic structures", Thin Solid Films 672 (2019): 62-65.

Gedi, Sreedevi, et al. "Effect of C4H6O6 concentration on the properties of SnS thin films for solar cell applications", Applied Surface Science 465 (2019): 802-815.

Gedi, Sreedevi, et al. "Influence of deposition temperature on the efficiency of SnS solar cells", Solar Energy 184 (2019): 305-314.

Sajeesh, T. H., et al. "Role of pH of precursor solution in taming the material properties of spray pyrolysed SnS thin films", Applied surface science 258.18 (2012): 6870-6875.

Aksay, Sabiha, Tülay Özer, and Muhsin Zor. "Vibrational and X-ray diffraction spectra of SnS film deposited by chemical bath deposition method", The European Physical Journal-Applied Physics 47.3 (2009): 30502.

Devika, M., N. Koteeswara Reddy, and K. R. Gunasekhar. "Structural, electrical, and optical properties of as-grown and heat treated ultra-thin SnS films", Thin Solid Films 520.1 (2011): 628-632.

Dhanya, A. C., et al. "Effect of post deposition by UV irradiation on chemical bath deposited tin sulfide thin films", Applied Physics A 116 (2014): 1467-1472.

Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy Minnam, et al. "Development of sulphurized SnS thin film solar cells", Current Applied Physics 15.5 (2015): 588-598.



How to Cite

Ansari MZ, Sharma R. Tin Sulfide Nanoparticles as a p-Type Semiconductor Material: Synthesis and Characterization . J. Cond. Matt. [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 1 [cited 2024 May 29];1(02):32-6. Available from: https://jcm.thecmrs.in/index.php/j/article/view/42